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The Art of Reasoning

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The Third Edition has been meticulously updated and continues the successful pedagogical approach of the two previous editions, guiding students through the fundamental elements of formal deductive logic, classification and definition, fallacies, basic argument analysis, inductive generalization, statistical reasoning, and explanation.


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The Third Edition has been meticulously updated and continues the successful pedagogical approach of the two previous editions, guiding students through the fundamental elements of formal deductive logic, classification and definition, fallacies, basic argument analysis, inductive generalization, statistical reasoning, and explanation.

30 review for The Art of Reasoning

  1. 4 out of 5

    peiman-mir5 rezakhani

    ‎دوستانِ گرانقدر، این کتاب به موضوعاتِ مهمِ تفکر و مهارت هایِ اندیشیدن و چگونه اندیشیدن و اصولِ منطق پرداخته است ‎میتوانیم میانِ اندیشیدن و احساس کردن تمایز قائل شویم... اندیشیدن یک فعالیتِ شناختی است که در آن، برخلافِ پاسخ هایِ عاطفی، میکوشیم تا معرفت کسب کنیم، یا مطلبی را دریابیم... این بدان معنا نیست که کسی که عواطفِ قوی دارد، ضرورتاً غیرِ منطقی است، یا اینکه شخصِ منطقی باید فاقدِ عاطفه باشد ‎برعکس، هیچ دلیلی ندارد که نتوانیم هر دو را داشته باشیم: هم یک ذهنِ روشن و منطقی و هم احساساتِ پرشور... ‎دوستانِ گرانقدر، این کتاب به موضوعاتِ مهمِ تفکر و مهارت هایِ اندیشیدن و چگونه اندیشیدن و اصولِ منطق پرداخته است ‎میتوانیم میانِ اندیشیدن و احساس کردن تمایز قائل شویم... اندیشیدن یک فعالیتِ شناختی است که در آن، برخلافِ پاسخ هایِ عاطفی، میکوشیم تا معرفت کسب کنیم، یا مطلبی را دریابیم... این بدان معنا نیست که کسی که عواطفِ قوی دارد، ضرورتاً غیرِ منطقی است، یا اینکه شخصِ منطقی باید فاقدِ عاطفه باشد ‎برعکس، هیچ دلیلی ندارد که نتوانیم هر دو را داشته باشیم: هم یک ذهنِ روشن و منطقی و هم احساساتِ پرشور... اما اندیشیدن و احساس کردن نقش هایِ متفاوتی بازی میکنند و در زندگیِ حسیِ ما کارکردهایِ متفاوتی دارند ‎اندیشیدن عملی هدفمند است و با رویاپردازی و تخیلات تفاوت دارد. در خیال پردازی ما ذهنِ خود را رها میکنیم تا به هر کجا میخواهد پَر کشد، اما اندیشیدن کاری است که باید انجام دهیم و قدری تلاش لازم دارد ‎هدفِ منطق، کسبِ معرفت و یا یافتنِ حقیقت است و ارزشِ عمدۀ منطق در این است که همواره در تماس با واقعیت باقی بمانیم. منطق چیزی به ما می آموزد که آن را هنرِ عینیت میخوانیم ‎عینیت یعنی ایده هایِ خود را به طورِ منطقی مطرح کنید و با دقت به سخنانِ دیگران گوش فرا دهید ‎کتابِ زندگی همۀ پاسخ ها را در انتهایش ندارد، تا با مراجعه به آخرِ کتاب، پی به درست و اشتباه بودنِ پندار و گفتار و کردارِ خود ببرید. خوب اندیشیدن فرآیندی است که در آن، اندیشه خود را جهت میبخشد، به درست کردنِ خود میپردازد، خطراتِ داوری هایِ عجولانه را هشدار میدهد. و هرگز از پرسیدن- پاسخ دادن به «چرا؟» فروگذار نمیکند ------------------------------------------- ‎دوستانِ خوبم و نورِ چشمانم، ملتی که حوصلهٔ اندیشیدن را از دست میدهد به حتم به قَیّمیِ از ما بهتران محتاج خواهد بود ‎عزیزانم، جهنمی که امروز در آن هستید، شما را از تفکرِ درست و اندیشیدن به فردا وا گذاشته است... دینی که دنیایِ ما را به لجن کشیده است، به چه دردِ آخرتِ ما میخورد!؟!؟؟؟ .... مگر میشود بدون خرد و اندیشه وارسته شد یا به قولِ این دروغ گویانِ موهوم پرست، به بهشت رفت ‎وقتی اندیشۀ ما هنوز درحالِ نشخوار کردنِ فضولاتِ وهم آمیزِ تزریق شده ای دور میزند که از آخورِ دین تغذیه می کند، چطور انتظار دارید که تاریخ تکرار نشود؟!؟ ... فرزندانِ من، بروید و سرتان را در چاهِ جانتان فرو کنید و هر چه فریاد دارید بر سرِ خودتان بزنید نه بر سرِ آمریکا و انگلیس و استکبارِ جهانی ‎بله. دوستانِ با شعور، ریشهٔ اندیشه هر چه بیشتر در فهم فرو میرود نجاستِ بیشتری را لمس خواهد کرد... اندیشه ای که آلودۀ سیاست و دین شد صداقت و نیکی و درستی را فهم نمی کند ‎عزیزانم، در این کتاب آمده که همیشه از "منطق" استفاده کنید، ولی دوستانِ من، فراموش نکنید که هیچ زمان برایِ ارتباط با قشری تعریف شده که قدّاره در کف دارند از منطقِ خویش کمک نگیرید... کسی که زبانش را تیغهٔ برّانِ شمشیر حمایت می کند. به حتم شعورش را اخته کرده اند و منطق را فهم نمیکند... جانوری بیشعور است که هیچ نمیفهمد ‎دوستانِ خردگرا، خدایی که این متقلّبان و مبلّغانِ دینی و مذهبی برایِ شما ساخته اند، به اندازۀ حجمِ یک منظومۀ شمسی کتابِ مغلطه و سفسطه پردازی دارد که با هیچ دلیل و برهان و منطقی سرِ سازگاری ندارد. مگر این که شما شعورِ انسانیِ خود را در معامله با اوهام و خرافاتِ آنها از دست بدهید. این است رمزِ ماندگاریِ معابدِ قدیسین و گورهای ضریح دار و طلاکاری شدهٔ موجوداتِ بیابانی در این کرۀ خاکی و به خصوص سرزمینِ پاکمان ایران ------------------------------------------- ‎امیدوارم این ریویو برایِ فرزندانِ خردگرایِ سرزمینم، مفید بوده باشه ‎«پیروز باشید و ایرانی»

  2. 4 out of 5

    Patrick Peterson

    2021-03-27 This is a textbook, but WOW, what a text! I read this in the early 90s, about 12-15 years after taking a logic class in college. Kinda strange, eh? Especially since I am not a logic or math teacher, or anywhere close to a full time teacher at all. But I remembered liking my logic class and the text for that very much: Introduction to Logic by Irving M. Copi. However some of the examples in the class seemed a bit too... mainstream, statist/leftist. And the text did not seem quite as wel 2021-03-27 This is a textbook, but WOW, what a text! I read this in the early 90s, about 12-15 years after taking a logic class in college. Kinda strange, eh? Especially since I am not a logic or math teacher, or anywhere close to a full time teacher at all. But I remembered liking my logic class and the text for that very much: Introduction to Logic by Irving M. Copi. However some of the examples in the class seemed a bit too... mainstream, statist/leftist. And the text did not seem quite as well grounded in how essential the logical tools for thinking really were. I don't want to denigrate that book or the class I took in college - compared to the only other philosophy class I took, it was miles ahead and more practical and helpful. But I had come across the writings, some speeches and debates of the author of this book, David Kelley, and was entranced at how much more he and possibly this book offered. And gosh, I was not disappointed. If you have any interest in logical thinking, (and who the heck would not?) then I recommend this book, if not to read cover to cover ASAP, but at least to get as a reference work, to use for particular sections when needed. The prose is excellent, clear, concise, entertaining, relevant and on the money good. I especially like the section on Subjectivist (Copi and some others call them "informal") Fallacies, since those are used so often by so many people to persuade you of good and bad ideas, to buy good and bad products, to support good and bad politicians. Here's the list, since they are so important to know: Subjectivism Appeal to Majority (Ad populum) Appeal to Emotion Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum) Credibility Appeal to Authority (Ad Verecundiam) Ad Hominem Fallacies of Logical Structure Begging the Question (Circular Argument-Petitio Principii) Post Hoc ergo propter hoc (after this, therefor because of this) False Alternative Appeal to Ignorance (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam) Non Sequitur Don't know all these? Well, perhaps you are being fooled by some arguments that are not logical and might want to check them out. For your own good. And for the good of us all. To understand a solid, fact and logic based argument vs. an ephemeral, fallacious, or even downright evil (or at lease seemingly bad intent) argument, you need the tools in this book.

  3. 5 out of 5

    Lisa (Harmonybites)

    In rating and reviewing what is in effect a textbook I ask, could I study this on my own and master a subject? In this case, I think the answer is yes. This is clear, readable, and includes useful and well-designed exercises to drive the lessons home. As Kelley puts in it in the introduction: "This is a book about thinking. It's a book about how to think." Mastering logic is definitely useful in promoting clear thinking, and in evaluating and shaping convincing arguments. It's useful in particul In rating and reviewing what is in effect a textbook I ask, could I study this on my own and master a subject? In this case, I think the answer is yes. This is clear, readable, and includes useful and well-designed exercises to drive the lessons home. As Kelley puts in it in the introduction: "This is a book about thinking. It's a book about how to think." Mastering logic is definitely useful in promoting clear thinking, and in evaluating and shaping convincing arguments. It's useful in particular in evaluating articles and books in subjects you don't know well. You might not have the expertise to evaluate many of the factual claims, but at least you can spot faulty reasoning. I should admit up front I picked this particular book because I knew author David Kelley as both a solid in scholarship and trained academic (he was a professor at Vassar at the time this book was published) and because I knew that like me, he was an admirer of Ayn Rand. He's upfront about his debt to her in his preface. Just as for me this was an attraction, some might find this point a turn-off. Which would be a shame, because I do think this book is an objective and strong presentation on the discipline. Part One, "Concepts and Propositions" seemed rather elementary, even simplistic to me--I had absorbed these concepts long before. But it's a strength of Kelley's pedagogy that he goes step by step starting with the fundamentals and taking nothing for granted. It's Part Two, "Arguments," Part Three, "Classical Deductive Logic" and Part Five, "Inductive Logic" I find the most useful, at least in reviewing the art of the argument. Particularly useful is the chapter on "Fallacies"--encapsulated in a list on page 133. Part Four is the most difficult and esoteric, where Kelley goes into such advanced topics as symbolic logic. The layman might find this too much information--it's not a tool kit used by many other than professional philosophers. But for what it's worth, I can't imagine a better presentation.

  4. 5 out of 5

    Roy Schwartz

    The only self-improvement book you'll ever need. It's a textbook of critical thinking that succeeds in staying interesting throughout. The only self-improvement book you'll ever need. It's a textbook of critical thinking that succeeds in staying interesting throughout.

  5. 5 out of 5

    Mike

    I rarely have much positive to say about any textbook, but The Art of Reasoning presents its material quite well. It is well written and is not nearly as dry as I would have expected, but it's still very clear and rather concise. It's also fairly easy to follow. Kelley makes appropriate use of tables, charts and various diagrams to clarify topics and provide tools for easy review but doesn't treat them as a substitute for verbally explaining their content. He steps away from "Ps and Qs" to provid I rarely have much positive to say about any textbook, but The Art of Reasoning presents its material quite well. It is well written and is not nearly as dry as I would have expected, but it's still very clear and rather concise. It's also fairly easy to follow. Kelley makes appropriate use of tables, charts and various diagrams to clarify topics and provide tools for easy review but doesn't treat them as a substitute for verbally explaining their content. He steps away from "Ps and Qs" to provide "real world" examples that make the concepts seem relevant and intelligible, but keeps them short enough that the text doesn't drag on. All in all, it's a very solid textbook.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Daniel

    Positive: Not as DRY as Copi Negative: Not as DETAILED as Copi

  7. 4 out of 5

    Ron Shoemaker

    This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. Excellent explanation of how to reason. Many simple examples. He avoids stating conclusions on philosophical subject matter, e.g. politics and religion, and concentrates on how to use reason.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Paul

    Decent introduction to logic text. There were at least 10 mistakes I found in the answer key, though.

  9. 5 out of 5

    Brian Taylor

  10. 4 out of 5

    A

  11. 4 out of 5

    Bonnie Lamer

  12. 4 out of 5

    Star Lazarus

  13. 4 out of 5

    Harmanas Chopra

  14. 5 out of 5

    Naeem Nedaee

  15. 5 out of 5

    Tome Trinket

  16. 5 out of 5

    Kail

  17. 5 out of 5

    Luis Fernando Leal

  18. 5 out of 5

    Clint

  19. 4 out of 5

    Nightocelot

  20. 5 out of 5

    Rehema Angumbwike

  21. 4 out of 5

    Walter Foddis

  22. 5 out of 5

    William

  23. 4 out of 5

    Thomas Vidal

  24. 4 out of 5

    Dwayne Roberts

  25. 5 out of 5

    monica crocker

  26. 4 out of 5

    Filip

  27. 4 out of 5

    Melissa Sugeng

  28. 5 out of 5

    August V

  29. 5 out of 5

    Daniel

  30. 5 out of 5

    Kristen

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